The Bill - which was included in the Queen's Speech in June - will update the UK's existing Data Protection Act to account for the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), as well as a sister directive on data protection in a law enforcement context.
While GDPR will apply unilaterally across the EU from 25 May 2018, each EU country can set its own rules on some data protection issues outlined in the Regulation. Earlier this year, the Government issued a call for UK businesses to help shape the new laws by providing their own views on a range of exemptions - so-called "derogations" - although it did not reveal its own views. The new Data Protection Bill could therefore contain a number of provisions.
The Bill could also set out the circumstances in which organisations operating in the UK would be expected to appoint a dedicated data protection officer (DPO), as well as address the issue of sanctions for data protection breaches under the new regime.
The Bill's first reading is largely a formality; the second reading is the first time it will be debated, although a date has yet to be set for that.
Last month Germany became the first EU country to finalise their national legislation to bring it in line with GDPR, through a new Federal Data Protection Act.